Korea, Chosen, and Tyosen reports

The scripting of protection and nationalization

By William Wetherall

First posted 25 June 2007
Last updated 10 July 2009

Korea Chosen Tyosen reports 1907 | 1908-09 | 1909-10 | 1913-14 | 1914-15 | 1924-26 | 1927-28 | 1930-32 | 1932-33
Features Chientao agreement | Abolition of foreign settlements | Fingerprinting

Korea, Chosen, and Tyosen reports


Korea reports      Series 1      1907-1910

Annual Report on Reforms and Progress in Korea
Empire of Korea as protectorate of Empire of Japan
3 volumes

1907 (1908)
1908-09 (1909)
1909-10 (1910)

Chosen (Korea) reports      Series 2      1910-1922

Annual Report on Reforms and Progress in Chosen (Korea)
Chosen as part of Empire of Japan
4 volumes

1913-14 (1915)
1914-15 (1916)

Chosen reports      Series 3      1922-1936

Annual Report on Administration of Chosen
Chosen as part of Japan after reforms
12 volumes

1922-23 (1924)
1924-26 (1927)
1926-27 (1928)
1927-28 (1929)
1929-30 (1931)
1930-32 (1932)
1932-33 (1933)
1933-34 (1934)
1934-35 (1935)
1935-36 (1936)

Tyosen [Keizyo] reports      Series 4      1936-1940

Annual report on administration of Tyosen
Orthography reflects application of Kunreishiki romanization adopted in 1937
4 volumes ?

1938-39 ?
1939-40 ?

Sainosuke Kiriyama (editor)
Chosen of To-day: Illustrated
Compiled in Commemoration of the Vicennial of the Government-General of Chosen, October, 1929
Keijo: Ch[i]kasawa Printing House
60 pages, plates and maps

Page 4

Race and Language

Opinions vary as to the exact origin of the Korean race. It is evident, however, that it is of Mongol extraction and that it is closely allied to the Japanese race. Scientific investigation have clearly demonstrated that the prehistoric inhabitants of the peninsula, the forefathers of the Koreans of to day, were of the same race as those then dwelling in the western half of Japan, in Manchuria, and in the Siberian littoral.

The Koreans speak a polysyllabic and agglutinative language of the Turanian group. It has an alphabet composed of 11 vowels and 11 consonants, and a native script called En-mun. It is more akin to the Japanese language than to any other tongue. In writing the Koreans use the Chinese characters with an admixture of their own En-mun.

Foreign Affairs Section (editor)
Thriving Chosen
A Survey of Twenty-Five Years' Administration
Compiled by Government-General of Chosen
October 1935
Printed by Taisho Shashin Kogeisho, 1935
94 pages, interleaved with about 100 plates of photographs and maps

Titled printed slip reads "With the Compliments of The Government-General of Chosen". Inked remark reads "Dec 10/35 / Presented to us by / Yesuma Oda on our / arrival at / Keijo, Korea".


1907 Korea report


Annual Report for 1907 on Reforms and Progress in Korea
Compiled by H.I.J.M.'s Residency General
Seoul, December, 1908
viii, 140 pages, maps

No colophon or evidence that a colophon existed.
No ethnographic data


On 17 November 1905, Japan and Korea signed an agreement which transfered to Japan the responsibility of looking after Korea's diplomatic affairs. Article 1 made this provision (pages 107-108).

Article 1. The government of Japan, through the Department of Foreign Affairs at Tokyo, will hereafter have control and direction of the external relations and affairs of Korea, and the diplomatic and consular representatives of Japan will have charge of the subjects and interests of Korea in foreign countries.

A Resident General would represent Japan at the court of the Emperor of Korea and oversee diplomatic affairs in Korea (Article 3).

Koreans sometimes refer to the agreement as the Ŭlsa (‰³–¤ 을사) treaty, since it was signed in this year of the 60-year-cycle sexagenary calendar.

The 1965 normalization treaty between ROK and Japan declared that the 1910 annexation treaty between the Empire of Korea and the Empire of Japan, and all previous treaties and agreements between the two countries, were null and void -- meaning as of 28 April 1952, the date Japan legally abandoned "Chosen" as part of its sovereign territory.

2005 marked the centennial of the Ulsa (Eulsa) treaty, which is widely regarded in Korea to be the true beginning of annexation. On 24 June 2005, concluding a four-day conference held in Seoul, ROK and DPRK issued a 12-point joint statement to enchance their ties. The 5th point, concerning Japan, began with a confirmation that the 1905 five-point protectorate treaty was illegal and invalid, on the grounds that it was coerced. By this they meant that, under international law, the treaty should be regarded as null-and-void from the moment it was signed.


1908-1909 Korea report

The Second Annual Report on Reforms and Progress in Korea (1908-9)
Compiled by H.I.J.M.'s Residency General
Seoul, December 1909
xiii, 215 pages, plates and maps, softcover
Elibron Classics facsimile, 2006

Map of Post Office and Postal Route in Korea (31st March, 1909), and map of Telegraph Office and Telegraph Route in Korea (31st March, 1909), both show Chientao.


Chientao agreement

The dispute between the governments of China and Japan, over the treatment of Koreans in China, came to boil in 1909, four years after Korea had become a protectorate of Japan. A two states signed a treaty that year, but conflicts over interpretations of the nationality status Koreans in China came to a boil in 1910 when Japan annexed Korea as Chosen, and began to regard Koreans as Chosenese subjects of Japan, hence Japanese.

In 1932, the year Japan facilitated the founding of Manchoukuo in Manchuria over China's objection that Manchuria was part of China, the Republic of China publicized the issue in the follwoing English pamphlet.

Memorandum on The Status of Koreans in the Three Eastern Provinces
Document No. 5
Peiping, June 1932
28 pages

The "Three Eastern Provinces" (“ŒŽOÈ) were Liaoning province (—É”JÈ), Kirin province (‹g—яÈ), and Heilungkiang province (•—³]È). Until 1929, Liaoning province had been known as Fengtien province (•ò“VÈ). These provinces formed Manchuria (–žB) in its narrower sense, though broadly speaking Manchuria also embraced parts of Inner Mongolia and Siberia.

The "Introductory remarks" read as follows (page 4, [bracketed] remarks mine).

The first exodus of Koreans into the Three Eastern Provinces dates back to 1869 when a severe famine forced the starving people to defy the restrictions of their Government against migration and to seek succour across the Yalu river in Chinese territory. The annextion of Korea by Japan [in 1910] brought about another exodus consisting mainly of those who were either political refugees or who resented the control of their country by Japan. Since then the number of Koreans in this North-eastern territory steadily increased until to-day it has reached the figure of 800,000 approximately. Of this number, about one-half is reported to reside in the so-called Chientao region, situated on the eastern border of the Kirin Province.

To be continued.

1909 China-Japan agreement concerning Koreans in Chientao
With commentary on terminology

Chinese text

At present I have only secondary versions of parts of the Chinese text.

Japanese text

The articles of the Japanese text of treaty are adapted from a version posted on a Korean website, which represented them as the content of a dispatch sent from Tokyo at 00:50 on 5 September 1909 by Minister of Foreign Affairs Komura Jutarō (¬‘º šæ‘¾˜Y 1855-1911) and received in Keijō (Seoul) at 07:15 later the same morning by Resident General of Korea Sone Arasuke (‘\”Hr• 1849-1910).

Korean translation

The Korean version, from the same website, represents a literal translation of the Japanese text. A totally hangul version was also shown. The translation is also found on ROK's Korea Knowledge Portal, from which I have taken the Korean title of the agreement.

English translation

The English version is a contemporary translation represented as "The Korean Boundary Agreement" in the following source.

Chinese-Japanese Agreements
The American Journal of International Law Volume 4, Number 2, Supplement: Official Documents (April 1910)
Pages 130-133
Appendix C
The Korean Boundary Agreement
Pages 169-170


Highlighted terms and boxed comments are mine.

´é“Œ³”N9ŒŽ4“ú š¤˜ì]’†ŠØŠE–±žŠŠ¼
Ching Hsuantung (PY Qing Zuantong) 1-9-4
Provisions on T'uman (PY Tumen) river China-Korea boundary affairs

—²ê¤3”N9ŒŽ4“ú (“y) ŠÔ“‡에è한“úûC‹¦–ñ
Yunghŭi 3-9-4 (Saturday)
Japan-China Agreement concerning Kando

ŠÔ“‡‹¦–ñ   Chientao (PY Jiandao, K Kando, J Kantō) agreement

4 September 1909

Chinese text Japanese text Korean version
English version

‘å“ú–{š ­•{ ‹y ‘åûCš ­•{는 ‘P—×의 Œð‹b에 ŠÓ하여 š¤˜ì]이 ûCŠØ ™_š 의 š ‹«된 Ž–를 ŒÝ‘ŠŠm”F하고 ⍠‘˦의 ¸_으로서 ˆêØ의 辦–@을 ¤’è함으로써 ûCŠØ ™_š 의 粖¯으로 하여금 ‰i‰“히 Ž¡ˆÀ의 Œc•Ÿ을 ‹Žó케 하고저 하여 ¶의 žŠŠ¼을 ’ù—§함.

The Imperial Government of Japan and the Imperial Government of China, desiring to secure for Chinese and Korean inhabitants in the frontier region blessings of permanent peace and tranquility, and considering it essential to the attainment of such desire that the two Governments should in view of their relations of cordial friendship and good neighbourhood, recognize the River Tumen as forming the boundary between China and Korea, and should adjust all matters relating thereto in a spirit of mutual accommodation, have agreed upon the following stipulations:

‘æˆêžŠ   ’†“ú™_š ­•{”ލŸãߖ¾AˆÈš¤˜ì]ˆ×’†ŠØ™_š š ŠEA‘´]Œ¹’n•ûŽ©’èŠE”莊Î‰³…ˆ×ŠEB

‘æˆêžŠ   “úûC™_š ­•{ƒnš¤˜ì]ƒ’ûCŠØ™_š ƒmš ‹«ƒgƒV]Œ´’n•ûƒj‰—ƒeƒn’èŠE”胒‹NêyƒgƒVÎ‰³…ƒ’ˆÈƒe™_š ƒm‹«ŠEƒgƒiƒXƒRƒgƒ’ãߖ¾ƒX

‘æ1žŠ   “úûC ™_š ­•{는 š¤˜ì]을 ûCŠØ ™_š 의 š ‹«으로 하고 ]Œ¹ ’n•û에 Ý하여는 ’èŠE”è를 ‹Nêy으로 하여 Î‰³…로써 ™_š 의 ‹«ŠE로 함을 ãߖ¾함.

Article I   The Governments of Japan and China declare that the River Tumen is recognized as forming the boundary between China and Korea, and that in the region of the source of that River, the boundary line shall start from the Boundary Monument and thence follow the course of the Stream Shi-yi-shwei.

‘æ“ñžŠ   ûCš ­•{ƒn–{‹¦–ñ’²ˆóŒã‰Â¬‘¬ƒj¶‹LƒmŠe’nƒ’ŠOš lƒm‹Z‹y–fˆÕƒmਃŠJ•úƒXƒwƒN“ú–{š ­•{ƒn¥“™ƒm’nƒj—ÌŽ–ŠÙŽáƒNƒn—ÌŽ–ŠÙ•ªŠÙƒ’ŽÞÝƒXƒwƒVŠJ•úƒmŠú“úƒn•Êƒj”Vƒ’’胀

‘æ2žŠ   ûCš ­•{는 –{‹¦–ñ ’²ˆó Œã 아무쪼록 ‘¬히 ¶‹L의 Še’n를 ŠOš l의 ‹Z‹y –fˆÕ하기 à¨하여 ŠJ•ú함이 ‰Â함. “ú–{­•{는 Ÿ“™의 ’n에 —ÌŽ–ŠÙ ˆ½은 —ÌŽ–ŠÙ•ªŠÙ을 ŽÞÝ함이 ‰Â하되 ŠJ•ú의 Šú“ú은 •Ê로히 Ÿ를 ’è함. —´ˆä‘º·‹ÇŽqŠX·“ª“¹a·•S‘a

Article II   The Government of China shall, as soon as possible after the signing of the present Agreement, open the following places to the residence and trade of foreigners, and the Government of Japan may there establish Consulates or Branch Offices of Consulates. The date of opening of such places shall be separately determined: Lung-ching-tsum, Chutsz-chie, Tou-tao-kou, Pai-tsao-lou.

The four place names in the received text may include scanning errors. Their Chinese graphs, and Wade-Giles and Pinyin romanizations, are as follows.

—´ˆä‘º Lung-ching-ts'un, Lungjingcun
‹ÇŽqŠX Chu-tzu-chieh, Juzijie
“ª“¹a T'ou-tao-kou, Toudaogou
•S‘a Pai-tsao-kou, Baicaogou

‘æŽOžŠ   ûCš ­•{ƒnœn˜Òƒm’ʃŠš¤˜ì]–kƒm¤’nƒj‰—ƒeŠØ–¯ƒm‹Zƒ’³yƒX‘´’nˆæƒm‹«ŠEƒn•Êš¤ƒ’ˆÈƒe”Vƒ’Ž¦ƒX

‘æ3žŠ   ûCš ­•{는 œn˜Ò와 같이 š¤˜ì] –k의 ¤’n에 Ý하여 ŠØ–¯의 ‹Z를 ³”F함. ‘´’nˆæ의 ‹«ŠE는 •Êš¤로 Ÿ를 Ž¦함.

Article III   The Government of China recognizes the residence of Korean subjects, as heretofore, on agricultural lands lying north of the River Tumen. The limits of the district for such residence are shown in the annexed map.

‘æŽlžŠ   š¤˜ì]–k’n•û趋™½ˆæ內¤’n‹ZƒmŠØ–¯ƒnûCš ƒm–@žÜƒj•žœnƒVûCš ’n•ûŠ¯ƒmŠŠÙ”»ƒjŸdƒXûCŠ¯Œ›ƒn‰EŠØ–¯ƒ’ûCš –¯ƒg“¯žéƒj‘Ò‹öƒXƒwƒN”[稅‘´‘¼ˆêØs­ãƒm™|•ªƒ‚ûCš –¯ƒg“¯žéƒ^ƒ‹ƒwƒN‰EŠØ–¯ƒj萌WƒXƒ‹–¯Ž–ŒYŽ–ˆêØƒm‘i×Ž–ŒƒnûCš Š¯Œ›ƒj‰—ƒeûCš ƒm–@—¥ƒ’ˆÂÆƒVŒö•½ƒjÙ”»ƒXƒwƒN“ú–{—ÌŽ–Š¯–”ƒn‘´ˆÏ”Cƒ’ŽóƒPƒ^ƒ‹Š¯—™ƒnŽ©—Rƒj–@’ìƒj—§˜ðƒtƒRƒgƒ’“¾’Al–½ƒj萃Xƒ‹dˆÄƒj•tƒeƒn{ƒ‰ƒNæƒc“ú–{š —ÌŽ–Š¯ƒj’mÆƒXƒwƒLƒ‚ƒmƒgƒX“ú–{š —ÌŽ–Š¯ƒj‰—ƒeŽáƒV–@—¥ƒ’ˆÂÆƒZƒXƒVƒe”»ÐƒZƒ‹—õƒAƒ‹ƒRƒgƒ’”Fƒƒ^ƒ‹ƒgƒLƒnŒö³ƒmÙ”»ƒ’ŠúƒZƒ“ƒJਕʃjŠ¯—™ƒ’”hƒVƒe•¢RƒXƒwƒLƒRƒgƒ’ûCš ƒj¿‹ƒXƒ‹ƒ’“¾

‘æ4žŠ   ‘æ4žŠ š¤˜ì] –k’n•û 趋’n ™½ˆæ內 ¤’n‹Z의 ŠØ–¯은 ûCš 의 –@žÜ에 •žœn하고 ûCš ’n•ûŠ¯의 ŠÇŠÙ”»에 Ÿd함. ûCš Š¯Œ›은 ‰EŠØ–¯을 ûCš l과 “¯žé으로 ‘Ò‹ö함이 ‰Â하며 ”[稅 ‘´‘¼ ˆêØ s­ã의 ™|•ª도 ûCš –¯과 “¯žé됨이 ‰Â함. ‰E ŠØ–¯에 萌W되는 –¯Ž– ŒYŽ– ˆêØ의 ‘i×Ž–Œ은 ûCš Š¯Œ›이 ûCš –@—¥을 ˆÂÆ하여 Œö•½히 Ù”»함이 ‰Â함. “ú–{š —ÌŽ–ŠÙ –”는 ‘´ˆÏ”C을 Žó한 ŠÇ—™는 Ž©—R로 –@’ì에 “ü˜ð함을 “¾하며 ’A l–½에 관한 dˆÄ에 ›”하여는 {æ “ú–{š —ÌŽ–ŠÙ에 ’mÆ할 ŽÒ로 함. “ú–{š —ÌŽ–ŠÙ이 Žá –@—¥을 ˆÂ치 아니하고 ”»Ð하는 Ž–가 —L함을 ”F하는 Žž는 Œö³의 Ù”»을 Šú케 하기를 à¨하여 •Ê로히 Š¯—™를 ”h하여 •¢R할 Ž–를 ûCš 에 ¿‹함을 “¾함.

Article IV   Korean subjects residing on agricultural lands within the mixed residence district to the north of the River Tumen shall submit to the laws of China and shall be amenable to the jurisdiction of the Chinese local officials. Such Korean subjects shall be accorded by the Chinese authorities equal treatment with Chinese subjects, and similarly, in the matter of taxation and all other administrative measures, they shall be placed on an equal footing with Chinese subjects. All cases, whether civil or criminal, relating to such Korean subjects shall be heard and decided by the Chinese authorities in accordance with the laws of China, and in a just and equitable manner. A Japanese Consular officer or an official duly authorized by him shall be allowed freely to attend the Court, and in the hearing of important cases concerning the lives of persons, a previous notice is to be given to the Japanese Consular Officers. Whenever the Japanese Consular Officers find that a decision has been given in disregard of law, they shall have the right to apply to the Chinese authorities for a new trial, to be conducted by officials specially selected, in order to assure the justice of the decision.

The 1932 "Status of Koreans" pamphlet (see particulars above) gives the following somewhat abridged version of Article 4 (page 6).

Koreans residing north of the Tumen River and engaged in agriculture shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the Chinese officials of the territory. Chinese officials shall treat the Koreans and Chinese with equality as regards payment of taxes and in the enforcement of the laws. Chinese officials shall administer Chinese law in all civil and criminal cases where Koreans are concerned. A Japanese Consular officer may at all times attend the court proceedings. In cases where capital punishment may be adjudged, the Japanese Consul must be notified. If the Japanese Consul can point out any irregularities in the proceedings, he may request that another official be appointed to hold a rehearing of the case, so that justice may be obtained.

‘æŒÜžŠ   š¤˜ì]–k趋™½ˆæ內ƒj‰—ƒPƒ‹ŠØ–¯Š—Lƒm“y’n‰Æ‰®ƒnûCš ­•{ƒˆƒŠûCš l–¯ƒmàŽY“¯žéƒjŠ®‘Sƒj•ÛŒìƒXƒwƒV–”ŠY]‰ˆŠÝƒjƒnêŠƒ’‘Iƒq“n‘Dƒ’ÝƒP™Ô•ûl–¯ƒm‰˜ÒƒnŽ©—Rƒ^ƒ‹ƒwƒV’A•ºŠíƒ’Œg›æƒXƒ‹ƒ‚ƒmƒnŒö•¶–”ƒnŒìÆƒiƒNƒVƒe‹«ƒ’‰zƒ†ƒ‹ƒ’“¾ƒX趋™½ˆæ內ŽYoƒm•Ä’ƒnŠØ–¯ƒm”Àoƒ’‹–ƒX–Þƒ‚‹¥”NƒjÛƒVƒeƒn尙‹ÖŽ~ƒXƒ‹ƒRƒgƒ’“¾ƒwƒNŽÅ‘ƒnäpƒjˆËƒŠÆ™žƒXƒwƒV

‘æ5žŠ   š¤˜ì] –k 趋™½ˆæ 內에 Ý한 ŠØ–¯Š—L의 “y’n ‰Æ‰®은 ûCš ­•{로부터 ûCš l–¯의 àŽY과 “¯žé으로 Š®‘S히 •ÛŒì함이 ‰Â하고 –” ŠY]‰ˆŠÝ에는 êŠ를 ¢하여 “n‘D을 Ý하여 ™_•ûl–¯의 ‰˜Ò는 Ž©—R됨이 ‰Â함. ’A •ºŠí Œg›æ한 ŽÒ는 Œö•¶ –”는 ŒìÆ가 –³히 ‰z‹«함을 •s“¾하고 趋™½ˆæ 內 ŽYo의 •Ä’은 ŠØ–¯의 ”̉^을 ‹–하되 Å히 ‹¥”N에 Û하여는 ˜¹히 ‹ÖŽ~함을 “¾함이 ‰Â하며 ŽÄ‘는 ˆËäp Æ辦함이 ‰Â함.

Article V.   The Government of China engages that land and buildings owned by Korean subjects in the mixed residence district to the north of the River Tumen shall be fully protected, equally with the properties of Chinese subjects. Ferries shall be established on the River Tumen at places properly chosen [sic], and people on either side of the River shall be entirely at liberty to cross to the other side, it being, however, understood that persons carrying arms shall not be permitted to cross the frontier without previous official notice or passports. In respect of cereals produced in the mixed residence district, Korean subjects shall be permitted to export them out of the said district, except in time of scarcity, in which case such exploitation may be prohibited. Collection of firewood and grass shall be dealt with in accordance with the practice hitherto followed.

‘æ˜ZžŠ   ûCš ­•{ƒn›’˜Ò‹g’·èc“¹ƒm‰„‹g“ì‹«ƒj‰„’·ƒVŠØš ˜ð”Jƒj‰—ƒeŠØš èc“¹ƒg˜A—ƒXƒwƒN‘´ƒmˆêØƒm™ž–@ƒn‹g’·èc“¹ƒgˆê—¥ƒ^ƒ‹ƒwƒVŠJ™žƒmŽžŠúƒnûCš ­•{ƒj‰—ƒeîŒ`ƒ’ŽÞ—ʃV“ú–{­•{ƒg¤‹cƒmã”Vƒ’’胀

‘æ6žŠ   ûCš ­•{는 ›’˜Ò ‹g’·èc“¹를 ‰„‹g “ì‹«에 ‰„’·하여 ŠØš  ˜ð”J에서 ŠØš èc“¹와 ˜AŒ‹함이 ‰Â함. ‘´ˆêØ의 辦–@은 ‹g’·èc“¹와 ˆê—¥됨이 ‰Â하며 ŠJ辦의 ŽžŠú는 ûCš ­•{에서 îŒ`을 ŽÞ—Ê하여 “ú–{š ­•{와 ¤‹c한 Œã Ÿ를 ’è함.

Article VI   The Government of China shall undertake to extend the Kirin=Changchun [sic] Railway to the southern boundary of Yenchin, and to connect it at Hoiryong with a Korean railway, and such extension shall be effected upon the same terms as the Kirin-Changchun Railway. The date of commencing the work of the proposed extension shall be determined by the Government of China having regard to the actual requirement of the situation, and upon consultation with the Government of Japan.

‘掵žŠ   –{‹¦–ñƒn’²ˆóŒã’¼ƒjŒø—̓’¶ƒXƒwƒN“ŠÄ•{”hoŠ幷ƒj•¶•ƒmŠeˆõƒn‰Â¬‘¬ƒj“P‘Þƒ’ŠJŽnƒV“ñŒÂŒŽƒ’ˆÈƒeŠ®—¹ƒXƒwƒV“ú–{š ­•{ƒn“ñ‰ÓŒŽˆÈ內ƒj‘æ“ñžŠŠÚƒm’ʃŠ¤’nƒj—ÌŽ–ŠÙƒ’ŠJÝƒXƒwƒV

‘æ7žŠ   –{‹¦–ñ은 ’²ˆó Œã ’¼히 Á—Í을 ¶함이 ‰Â함. “ŠÄ•{”hoŠ ⍠•¶•Šeˆõ은 아무쪼록 ‘¬히 “P‘Þ를 ŠJŽn하여 2ŒÂŒŽ로써 Š®—¹함이 ‰Â하며 “ú–{š ­•{는 2ŒÂŒŽ ˆÈ內에 ‘æ2žŠ ŠŠJ의 ’ʏ¤’n에 —ÌŽ–ŠÙ을 ŠJÝ함이 ‰Â함. ‰E暝Ÿ로 하여 ‰º–¼은 Še‘´ –{š ­•{로부터 ‘Šác한 ˆÏ”C을 Žó하고 “ú–{•¶‹y Š¿•¶으로써 ì¬한 Še 2“x의 –{ ‹¦–ñ에 ‹L–¼ ’²ˆó함이라.

Article VII   In witness whereof, the undersigned, duly authorized by their respective Governments, have signed and sealed the present Agreement in duplicate, in the Japanese and Chinese languages.

[ Unverified reconstructed dates and titles ]

–¾Ž¡42”N‚XŒŽ‚S“ú    ‘å“ú–{‘“Á–½‘SŒ ŒöŽg    ˆÉW‰@•F‹g (–¼)

é“Œ³”N7ŒŽ20“ú    ‘åûCš ‹Ô–½ŠO–±•”尙‘˜ð燑åb    —À“Ö•F (–¼)

Meiji 42-9-4    Minister Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary for Great Japan    Ijuin Hikokichi (signed)

Hsuantung 1-7-20    Minister of Foreign Affairs    Liang Tun-yen (signed)

[ Both the Meiji (solar) and Hsuantung [Xuāntŏng] (lunar) dates correspond to 4 September 1909. ]

Ijuin Hikokichi

Ijūin Hikokichi (1864-1924) signed the 1909 agreement as the Japanese ambassador to the Ching Empire resident in Beijing. Ijūin came up the ranks in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in posts in China, Korea, and the United Kingdom before becoming the ambassador China in 1908. He was one leading memberfs of Japanfs delegation at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 while serving as the ambassador to Rome. He was the Governor-General of the Kwantung Leased Territory for a year (1922-1923), then for four months, until shortly before his death, he served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs (1923-1924).

It was at the Paris conference that Japan, on 13 February 1919, presented its first proposal to amend the Covenant of the League of Nations to oblige contracting parties "to accord as soon as possible to all alien nationals of states, members of the League, equal and just treatment in every respect making no distinction, either in law or in fact, on account of their race or nationality."

This first proposal was rejected for a number of reasons. From 22 March 1919, Japan began lobbying for an ammendent to the Covenant which would have added the clause "by the endorsement of the principle of equality of all nationals of States members of the League" to the preamble of the covenant. This proposal passed but Woodrow Wilson, who chaired the conference, used his discretionary powers to reject the vote on grounds that the issue remained divisive at a time when unanimity was in order.

See reviews of Naoko Shimazu's Japan, Race and Equality: The Racial Equality Proposal of 1919 for details.

Liang Tun-yen

Liang Tun-yen (Liáng Dūnyàn , 1857/8-1924) signed the 1909 agreement as the foreign minister of the Ching Empire. He received his middle and high school educations at Hardford and his college education at Yale. He pitched (southpaw) on both Hardford and Yale teams.

Liang went on to hold numerous and various posts in the Ching government and two in post-Ching governments. His last were as the Minister of Communications (1914) in the administration of Yuan Shih-k'ai (Yuan Shikai, 1859-1916), and as the Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1917, during the brief "restoration" of Emperor Pu-i (Puyi, 1906-1967) -- better known as the "Last Emperor" of the Ching Dynasty, who later became the Emperor of Manchoukuo -- and later still, an object of attack during the Cultural Revolution.


1909-1910 Korea report


The Third Annual Report on Reforms and Progress in Korea (1909-10)
Compiled by Government-General of Chosen
Seoul, December 1910
xiii, 194 pages, plates and maps
Elibron Classics facsimile, 2005, softcover


1913-1914 Chosen (Korea) report

Government-General of Chosen (compiler)
Annual Report on Reforms and Progress in Chosen (Korea) (1913-14)
Keijo: Government-General of Chosen, July 1915
ix, 167 pages, plates and maps
Elibron Classics facsimile, 2006, softcover

General map of "Choseon" and vicinity, and map of roads, neither showing Chientao.


Abolition of foreign settlements in Chosen

In 1913, Japanese municipalities and foreign settlements alike were abolished and integrated into local polities. The 1913-1914 annual report gives a detailed report beginning with these lines (pages 20-21).

15. Abolition of Japanese Municipalities and Foreign Settlements

In the sequel of the annexation of Korea to Japan, the Treaties concluded by Korea with Foreign Powers being relinquished, the consular jurisdiction exercised by them naturally became extinct. Consequently Japanese Municipalities and Foreign Settlements should have been amalgamated with the local administration of the Government-General simultaneously with the annexation. But, as stated in the Report for 1910, owing to existing circumstances these municipal administrations could not at once be merged into the local administration proper, so the municipal administration maintained respectively in the Japanese Municipalities, General Foreign Settlements, and the Chinese Exclusive Settlements was left as it stood, for the time being, except with regard to police administration.

The foreign settlements were abolished by April 1913 when a protocol to that effect was signed by Japan and the Euro-American states that had legations in Chosen. Chinese settlements in Chosen were abolished by November 1913. Japanese municipalities were abolished from 1 April 1914 to coincide with the enforcement of new regulation concerning urban prefectures (page 21).

In April 1913, the Director of the Bureau of Foreign Affairs of the Government-General of Chosen got the consuls of Germany, the United States, Russia, the British Empire, and France to sign a protocol which integrated all foreign settlements into the local communities and transferred all their common funds and properties to the local authorities concerned.

The appendix of the 1913-1914 annual report includes the full text of the following protocol (pages 147-148).


Agreed to at the Conference held between the Director of the Bureah of Foreign Affairs of the Government-General of Chosen and the Consular representatives of Treaty Powers concerned relating to the Abolition of the System of Foreign Settlements in Chosen

[ Ten articles. ]

Done at Keijō, Chosen, the 21st day of April, 1913.


[ Director of the Bureau of Foreign Affairs of the Government-General of Chosen ]

[ Consul-Generals for Germany, Belgium, United States of America, Russia, Britain, France, and Italy (represented by British Consul-General) ].



This overview of fingerprinting appeared in Section III, Justice, in the 1913-1914 report (page 32).

28. Finger-Prints of Convicts

In order to facilitate recognition of prisoners, should they again resort to crime after their release, prints of their fingers are kept. This finger-print method has been employed in the Peninsula since August, 1910. On April 1, 1912, the Regulations dealing with Finger-Prints were issued by the Governor-General's Instruction to Prison Governors No. 47, by which two sets of finger-prints of those undergoing penal servitude, imprisonment, or flogging should be taken; one to be kept in the prison and the other in the Judicial Department of the Government-General During the year 1913, copies of finger-prints of criminals submitted to the Judicial Department numbered 11,647, out of which 404 were those of offenders guilty of a repetition of their evil-doing.


1914-1915 Chosen (Korea) report


Annual Report on Reforms and Progress in Chosen (Korea) (1914-15)
Compiled by Government-General of Chosen
Keijo, July 1916
x, 183 pages, plates and maps
Elibron Classics facsimile, 2006, softcover

Three maps. Map of schools shows schools in area that would correspond to Chientao.


1924-1926 Chosen report

Annual Report on Administration of Chosen 1924-26
Compiled by Government-General of Chosen
Keijo, December 1927
iv, 195 pages, plates and maps
Editor: Sainosuké Kiriyama
Printers: Chosen Book-Printing Co., Keijo
[Name of printers also shown in characters]


1927-1928 Chosen report

Annual Report on Administration of Chosen 1927-28
Compiled by Government-General of Chosen
Keijo, December 1929
158 pages, plates and maps
Editor: Sainosuké Kiriyama
Printers: Chikasawa Printing House, Keijo, Chosen

First plate, with tracing paper leaf, shows Viscount Saito, Governor-General and Count Kodama, Administrative Superintendent.


1930-1932 Chosen report

Annual Report on Adminstration of Chosen 1930-32
Compiled by Government-General of Chosen
Keijo, December 1932
189 pages, plates and maps
Editor: Foreign Affairs Section
Printers: Signs of the Times Publishing House, Keijo, Chosen

First plate, with tracing paper leaf, shows H.H. Prince Yi and H.H. Princess Yi.


1932-1933 Chosen report

Annual Report on Adminstration of Chosen 1932-33
Compiled by Government-General of Chosen
Keijo, December 1933
200 pages, plates and maps
Editor: Foreign Affairs Section
Printers: Toppan Printing Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan

First plate, with tracing paper leaf, shows Aeroplane View of Chosen Jingu, Keijo.